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Yes, something is going on with this country when the only way to distinguish the liplocked hipster girls on from the sorority chicks parading around in wet T-shirts on MTV's Spring Break is to count their tattoos (hint: the first group has more). In a new book, thirty-year-old Ariel Levy posits that as pornography has permeated American society, a new and pervasive genre of woman has arisen: the Female Chauvinist Pig.
    Anxious to be perceived as hot, and reluctant to feel left out of what Levy calls "the frat party of pop culture," FCPs are allegedly eager to make sex objects of other women and themselves; they claim that watching Drew Barrymore pose for Playboy and whirl around a pole in Charlie's Angels is "empowering." Levy thinks they're kidding themselves, mistaking sexual power for real power and, what's worse, believing that the blind mimickry of strippers, Playmates and porn stars — women who are paid to simulate the sexuality of real women — is power in the first place. "'Raunchy' and 'liberated' are not synonyms," she writes.


    True. But they aren't necessarily opposites. As I read Levy's book, I kept flashing back to a scene from my youth. It was 1992 and I was in my parents' kitchen, flipping through my dad's copy of Newsweek. A picture stopped me cold. The girls in the photo were my age, but they looked a lot cooler than I did, with their bleach-blonde hair, arms crossed over their chests, and the word "slut" scrawled across their defiantly unaerobicized stomachs. They were riot grrrls, "a sassy new breed of feminist for the MTV age." Distilling this for the magazine's suburbanite subscribers — who probably couldn't fathom why a teenager would use her body as a billboard for high school's nastiest insult — the article's author quoted one of the movement's zines: "SLUT. Yeah, I'm a slut. My body belongs to me. I sleep with who I want . . . I'm not your property." It was both "no means no" and "yes means yes." To a seventeen-year-old girl, this was mind-blowing.
    An ardent student of feminist history, Levy eagerly chronicles how women's liberation and the sexual revolution overlapped in the '70s, then diverged, before devolving into the '80s-era sex wars that split activists into two camps: "pro-sex" and "anti-porn." But besides a smackdown of the purportedly pro-woman CAKE parties — which "seek to redefine the current boundaries [of] female sexuality" with pole dancers and pillow fights — Levy skips right over the riot grrrls and other feminists who began coming of age in the '90s. These women call themselves the third wave, and they aren't just consumers of raunch culture — they helped create and define it.
    It's a shame that Levy focuses exclusively on young women who have nothing more on their minds than going wild, no political agenda other than getting ahead or liberating their own libidos, because there are plenty of women who take a more socially conscious approach to smut. There are the women who, unhappy with a lack of

Performance can be a part of pleasure.

girl-friendly porn, started Sweet Action, a glossy that showcases full-frontal rocker boys. There are the former editors of the late, lamented teen magazine Sassy, who regularly and seriously used the word "patriarchy" yet ran a monthly "Cute Band Alert," because "everyone needs someone to objectify."
    But third-wavers did much more than turn the tables on men; they questioned the very foundations of sexuality. Levy worries that one of the biggest sexual issues confronting women is "the prioritizing of performance over pleasure." And I concur that when teenage girls believe that they must show up for school dressed like Christina Aguilera, there's a serious problem somewhere. But that isn't the whole story. As any women's-studies major knows, third-wave sheroes like Judith Butler, author of Gender Trouble, and Madonna, star of Truth or Dare, have a lot to say about how performance can be a part of pleasure. (And that's something guys may only now be clueing in to: An acquaintance of mine recently told me about her trip to see her daughter's friends play in a band. In the middle of their set, two of the guys stopped performing — in the acoustic sense, at least — and began furiously making out. "It's almost like teenage boys have caught up to where teenage girls were ten years ago," the woman mused.)
    Speaking of performance: Levy devotes an entire chapter to "bois," lesbians who dress androgynously, aggressively pursue casual sex and otherwise mimic adolescent male sexuality. Some of them, she says, adhere to "almost comically unreconstructed gender roles." I have no doubt that some androgynous lesbians are sexist, but Levy is on dangerous ground when she suggests that when a woman impersonates a teenage boy she's part of the

Purchasing the Aerosmith DVD with the Alicia Silverstone videos doesn't mean I'm disempowered.

problem. What about bois who are both skirt-chasers and feminists? I'm thinking of J.D. Samson, the mustachioed member of the band Le Tigre and probably the most well-known and vocal boi in pop culture. In 2003, she posed as a dogwalker, pool boy, lifeguard, and various other hetero-guy archetypes in a popular lesbian pinup calendar. It wasn't Playboy, but it wasn't anti-objectification either.
    In other words, raunch culture isn't all about fake boobs, and the women who embrace it aren't all FCPs. Purchasing the Aerosmith DVD with three Alicia Silverstone videos (which I did) or happily receiving an old copy of Playboy as a Christmas gift (that was me, too) might not be, to use a word Levy and the FCP's both love, "empowering," but that doesn't mean I'm disempowered. Participating in raunch culture may not always be a feminist act, but that doesn't make women who do so antifeminist — or deluded. I'm thinking of my friends, a happily paired lesbian couple, who accompanied me to a pro-choice march but also went to a strip club to celebrate a recent birthday. Or another friend, a feminist labor activist, who finds Brazilian bikini waxes sexy.
    Levy rails against a culture in which "the only alternative to enjoying Playboy is being 'uncomfortable' with or 'embarrassed' about your sexuality." But I know many women for whom there is a middle ground between rabid antiporn Dworkinizing and Girls Gone Wild vapidity. Plenty of us have assembled our sexual identities from bits and pieces of our personal histories, pop-culture experiences and elements of raunch culture that don't feel oppressive. Levy says, "We need to allow ourselves the freedom to figure out what we internally want from sex instead of mimicking whatever popular culture holds up as sexy." But for those of us who aren't planning a move to a remote island without television, radio, or wi-fi, it's impossible to live a life untainted by Britney Spears. What the third wave has been so good at — and what Levy doesn't even begin to address — is taking the tropes pop culture has given us and transforming them for our own purposes.  

To buy Female Chauvinist Pigs, click here.

©2005 Kara Jesella and

Commentarium (12 Comments)

Sep 28 05 - 6:02pm

Kara, dear. I am not persuaded. So what if you know self-proclaimed feminists (Phyllis Schlafly called herself a feminist at some time) who love Brazilian waxes. Proves zilch. Except that you have very confused friends.
Levy's book is great; she has a point. And you do a poor job at defining third-wave feminism. It's most important contriubution really isn't the fact that it has naked boys in magazines.
I know that Nerve feels probably personally attacked by books like Levy's but there's no need to answer so lamely. As soon as this year passes, I am not renewing my membership.

Sep 29 05 - 2:32pm

I actually had hoped from more from this article. I kept waiting for the author to get to the meat of the issue, to really explore how Levy was incorrect and failed to allow for another possibility. But the author didn't, and I am unclear of what that other possiblity is. I realize the article is a brief article, but I don't think she fully developed what it means to be the pleased recipient of an old Playboy for Christmas. I feel like the author doesn't want Levy to be right, but instead of providing coherent arguments against Levy, simply says "she's not exactly right and some of us aren't totally like that." There may be a middle ground, but what is that middle ground, and what does it mean?

Sep 29 05 - 5:55pm

EXCELLENT!! What a great piece and what a refreshing take!! I've been so disheartened by certain voices that seem to renew an old and inaccurate debate so it was with particular pleasure that I read this excellent piece. Thank you!

Sep 30 05 - 10:30am

Reading at work to pass the time, as I usually do. Thanks again for everything, but esp this piece. Refreshing article/perspective to see. I remember getting that same issue of Newsweek and seeing SLUT written on those same bellies. Changed my world forever.

Oct 01 05 - 12:30am

Excellent article! Women are owning their sexuality and de-bunking the patriarchal idea that women don't take pleasure in their bodies and don't like sex. I say, "Own it, sister."

Sep 30 05 - 5:18pm

Thank you so much! I miss the articles on gender politics Nerve used to be so good at publishing. It's nice to see they've not been abandoned forever. The author makes an excellent point with

Oct 02 05 - 8:42am

I LOVE it when Third Wave feminism is boiled down to sex. Looks like most people still don't get it, Jesella included. Do bisexual women, lesbians, and sluts own Third Wave Feminism? I certainly don't believe so. Hearing a 23-year-old brag about being at a frat party and having men "spill" alcohol on her just so they can lick it off and for a girlfriend to give her shout outs for such behavior does not seem empowering. Especially given that said 23-year-old also admits to hating herself. Levy has a point about these women she calls FCPs, deliberately making yourself a sexual object still means at the end of the day that you will be/are objectified.

Oct 03 05 - 7:58pm

I own an art gallery in Silverlake California, we specialise in "younger American photographers". I occasionally broden this definition if an artist appeals to me. Many of the photographers I've featured have shown their work here on Nerve - most of them have been men. As a women I show this work becasue I believe that there is much to be said for loving our bodies without the required perfections of fashion rags and TV trash and "erotic" - "fetisch" - "porn" photography allows for that far more than glamour photography. I don't show work I don't think hold up as Art - in other words: - you better know how to light, the composition had better be be balanced, I expect good colour saturation. At the same time I do believe the women in the photos have often made a choice to be violently disruptive. All one has to do is read the work of Georges Bataille to understand exactly what Erotiscm can be in the right hands. The old saw of Use it or Loose it does apply. We recently had a show featuring 15 photgraphers work centered around one model - this was very much about this womans ability to look at her body and make choices about to choose to show it - to choose to photograph it herself to choose to forge an identity based on these things or outside of them but HER choices. I thought it was a womans right to choose what to be - not a womans right ot dictate to another woman what her choice should be.

Oct 03 05 - 8:16pm

This whole article is Kara desperately showing us all what a very, very sexy feminist she is, thereby proving Levy's point about how appearing status-quo sexy has become more important to young feminists than promoting women's human rights. If Kara thinks her allegience to consuming Playboy and Sweet Action porno, strippers, and pussy hair removal services makes her too sexy for the substantive feminist criticisms outlined in Levy's book, she's right.

Oct 03 05 - 9:20pm

What a fabulous and insightful review. I knew something sort of ticked me off when I read Levy's book, and I think this has it right on. There's a middle ground to everything; it's an individual choice what is and what is not "empowering".

Oct 08 05 - 2:50am

"""This whole article is Kara desperately showing us all what a very, very sexy feminist she is"""

Exactly exactly exactly!!! That's what it's all about. I'm so glad someone said it. Now someone needs to go across the country and break the news to all the undergrads, art students, and miscellaneous angry chicks.

Your words in print do not blind us. We know what you are.

Jul 28 07 - 6:15pm

Women are long overdue in defining their identity sexually, and have been on a boxcar of railroaded sexuality that influences their potential and their success.

It's high time women took charge of their sexuality to identify its parameters for themselves.

Hopefully Nerve has helped to make that possible by hosting philosophy groups where it can be more reality than desire. Who but Nerve?